Adapted from http://www.grimmstories.com/en/grimm_fairy-tales/snow-white
It was the middle of winter and the snow-flakes were falling like feathers from the sky, and a king sat at his window working and his embroidery-frame was of ebony. As he worked, gazing at times out on the snow, he pricked his finger and there fell from it three drops of blood on the snow. When he saw how bright and red it looked, he said to himself, “Oh that I had a child a white as snow, as red as blood, and as black as the wood of the embroidery frame!” Not very long after the queen had a son with hair as white as snow, lips as red as blood, and skin as black as ebony and he was named Snow-white. When he was born the king died. After a year had gone by the queen took another husband, a beautiful man, but proud and overbearing and he could not bear to be surpassed in beauty by any one.
Thomas Fuller 1710 - 1790 , African “slave” and mathematician.
Thomas Fuller was an African, shipped to America as a slave in 1724. He had remarkable powers of calculation, and late in his life was discovered by antislavery campaigners who used him as a demonstration that blacks are not mentally inferior to whites.
The place of his birth appears to have been between present day Liberia and Benin. Known as Negro Tom, we know that he was described as a very black man and also we know that he lived in Virginia after being brought to the United States as a slave.Certainly late in his life he was the property of Elixabeth Coxe of Alexandria.
Thomas Fuller, known as the Virginia Calculator, was stolen from his native Africa at the age of fourteen and sold to a planter. When he was about seventy years old, two gentlemen, natives of Pennsylvania, viz., William Hartshorne and Samuel Coates, men of probity and respectable characters, having heard, in traveling through the neighborhood in which the slave lived, of his extraordinary powers in arithmetic, sent for him and had their curiosity sufficiently gratified by the answers which he gave to the following questions: First, Upon being asked how many seconds there were in a year and a half, he answered in about two minutes, 47 304 000. Second: On being asked how many seconds a man has lived who is 70 years, 17 days and 12 hours old, he answered in a minute and a half 2 210 500 800. One of the gentlemen who employed himself with his pen in making these calculations told him he was wrong, and the sum was not so great as he had said - upon which the old man hastily replied: stop, master, you forget the leap year. On adding the amount of the seconds of the leap years the amount of the whole in both their sums agreed exactly.
Another question was asked and satisfactorily answered. Before two other gentlemen he gave the amount of nine figures multiplied by nine. … In 1790 he died at the age of 80 years, having never learned to read or write, in spite of his extraordinary power of calculation.
Present day thinking is that Fuller learned to calculate in Africa before he was brought to the United States as a slave. Supporting evidence for this comes from a passage written by Thomas Clarkson in 1788 describing the purchase of African slaves: “It is astonishing with what facility the African brokers reckon up the exchange of European goods for slaves. One of these brokers has ten slaves to sell , and for each of these he demands ten different articles. He reduces them immediately by the head to bars, coppers, ounces… and immediately strikes the balance. The European, on the other hand, takes his pen, and with great deliberation, and with all the advantage of arithmetic and letters, begin to estimate also. He is so unfortunate, as to make a mistake: but he no sooner errs, than he is detected by this man of inferior capacity, whom he can neither deceive in the name or quality of his goods, nor in the balance of his account.”
Despite Fuller’s calculating abilities he was never taught to read or write and again this is evidence that he did not learn to calculate while in the United States. When someone who had witnessed his calculating abilities remarked that it was a pity he had not been educated, Fuller replied: ‘It is best I got no learning; for many learned men be great fools.’ He died on 1790 in Alexandria, Virginia, USA.
Click here for more: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/031508609090050N
(Source: m.facebook.com, via blackhistoryeveryday)
If you, like me, ever find yourself feeling guilty or ashamed about being a disabled student, doubting whether you really need or deserve accommodations, I encourage you to think back to the 504 protests. If you ever feel society tugging at you to “get by” without accommodations, “toughen up,” “suck it up,” “stick it out,” because “the whole world doesn’t cater to you,” remember that you are part of a community that has spent enough time living in an inaccessible world. If you feel tempted to do an ableist society’s work by torturing yourself for being disabled, remember that over a hundred protestors (and an infestation of crabs) stayed in a building for nearly a month without the comforts of home or any accommodations or accessible structures. Remember that all the discomfort and indignities they faced as protestors were so that you wouldn’t have to go through the same thing. You’re relieved of any duty to feel guilty or ashamed about being a disabled student. —
Fighting Shame with History
Longmore Institute student assistant Katie offers a bit of advice, history, and humor to help her fellow disabled students fight back against the internalized ableism that crops up at the start of the semester.
"I started working in the fields when I was five. After that, I worked construction for thirty years. Eight years ago, I was between jobs and I wanted to do something useful, so I started going to school. It took me 8 years to get through middle school, because I could only go to classes when work was slow, but I finished with a 9.3 out of 10. Now I’m moving on to high school. The toughest part is Algebra."
(Mexico City, Mexico)
HourlyArt Post #2710
Adapted from http://www.grimmstories.com/en/grimm_fairy-tales/sleeping_beauty
In times past there lived a queen and king, who said to each other every day of their lives, “Would that we had a child!” and yet they had none. But it happened once that when the king was bathing, there came a frog out of the water, and she squatted on the ground, and said to him, “Thy wish shall be fulfilled; before a year has gone by, though shalt have a son in the world.”
And as the frog foretold, so it happened; and the queen bore a son so beautiful that she could not contain herself for joy and she ordained a great feast. Not only did she bid it to her relations, friends and acquaintances, but also the wise men, that they might be kind and favorable to the child. There were thirteen of them in her kingdom, but as she had only provided twelve golden plates for them to eat from, one of them had to be left out.
Adapted from http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/perrault06.html
Once there was a lady who married, for her second husband, the proudest and most haughty man that was ever seen. He had, by a former wife, two sons of his own, who were, indeed, exactly like him in all things. She had likewise, by another husband, a young son, but of unparalleled goodness and sweetness of temper, which he took from his father, who was the best creature in the world.
Adapted from http://www.andersenstories.com/en/andersen_fairy-tales/the_swineherd
There was once a poor Princess, who had a kingdom. Her kingdom was very small, but still quite large enough to marry upon; and she wished to marry.
It was certainly rather cool of her to say to the Empress’s daughter, “Will you have me?” But so she did; for her name was renowned far and wide and there were a hundred princes who would have answered, “Yes!” and “Thank you kindly.” We shall see what this prince said.
Gossip Wolf and the Fox (The Fox and Her Cousin) -
Adapted from the Brother’s Grimm
The he-wolf sired a young one and invited the fox to be the godmother. “After all, she is a near relative of ours,” said he, “she has a good understanding and much talent; she can…
'Milky Way With Boats' (1912) by Felice Casorati (1883-1963). Etching and aquatint.
Image and text courtesy MFA Boston